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Air pollution is defined as the degradation of air quality as a result of direct or indirect activities that:
- Harm the health, safety and well-being of the population;
- create adverse conditions for social and economic activities;
- unfavorably affect the biota (living organisms);
- affect the aesthetic or sanitary conditions of the environment;
- release materials or energy in violation of environmental standards set forth in federal lawsO 6938 of August 31, 1981, regulated by Decree No.O 88 351/83.
Pollution and its source
To facilitate the study of the subject, we identified four main types of air pollution, according to polluting sources.
Natural pollution: resulting from natural processes such as dust, sea fog, dust of extraterrestrial origin, ashes from field burns, volcanic gases, plant pollen, odors associated with rot or natural fermentation, among others.
Transport-related pollution: resulting from the action of motor vehicles and airplanes. Due to the combustion of gasoline, diesel oil, alcohol etc., motor vehicles eliminate gases such as carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, sulfur gases, lead, chlorine, bromine and phosphorus products, as well as various unburnt hydrocarbons. Varying by engine type, airplanes eliminate into the atmosphere: copper, carbon dioxide, monoaldehydes, benzene, etc.
Combustion Pollution: from domestic heating sources and from incinerations, the pollutants of which are: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, aldehydes, unburned hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds. Sulfurous anhydride, for example, can be turned into sulfuric anhydride, and sulfuric acid, which precipitates along with rainwater.
Pollution due to industries: waste from steel mills, cement and coke plants, chemical industries, gas plants and ferrous smelting. These include toxic and irritant substances, photochemical pollutants, dust, etc. In addition to chemical dust, with different grain sizes, the main industrial pollutants are in the gaseous state, the most frequent being carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, fluorinated compounds, sulfur dioxide. , phenols and alcohols of unpleasant odors.