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Identification of an insect from Bangladesh

Identification of an insect from Bangladesh


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This is a video of the insect. Sorry, I don't have any still photograph.
Location: Savar, Bangladesh.

I've been suggested by an insect photographer that it is a caddisfly.

EDIT: Here are two images from the video


Identification of an insect from Bangladesh - Biology

I nsect I dentification K ey
Order Ephemeroptera: the mayflies

Based on your answers to the questions, you have identified your insect as being in the order Ephemeroptera!

Members of this order include: mayflies (sometimes called fishflies).

Etymology: Ephemeroptera comes from the Greek ephemera, which means ephemeral or short-lived, and ptera, which means wings. Ephemeroptera, therefore, means a winged insect with a short life, which is a reference to the fact that the typical adult mayfly lives only a day or so. See an adult mayfly by clicking here.

General characteristics:
&bull two pairs of net-veined, somewhat triangular-shaped wings
&bull the front pair of wings is much larger than the hind pair (some species lack hind wings altogether)
&bull two long threadlike cerci, usually with a third, similarly long and thin caudal filament between them
&bull soft body
&bull large eyes that typically cover most of the head
&bull wings are held vertically when the insect is at rest
&bull two short, bristly antennae
&bull long and thin abdomen
&bull hemimetabolous metamorphosis (egg &mdash naiad &mdash adult)


Click here to see examples of more mayflies!

Number of species worldwide: about 2,000

Classification:
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Arthropoda
Class Insecta
Order Ephemeroptera

For a list of all of the orders in this key, click here: List of Orders.

Classification note: Fishflies and mayflies are not flies. True flies are in the order Diptera.

Oops! If this doesn't appear to be the order for your insect, go back through the key and look more carefully at your insect while answering the questions again. Your perseverance will reward you!

Unless noted otherwise, photographs on this website are the property of the photographers and may not be reused without written permission from the photographers. To obtain permission, request it here.


Ten reasons for collecting and preserving insect specimens

There is an increasing trend to discourage collection and preservation of biological organisms including insects and their relatives. Although insects can be studied and enjoyed without killing them using observation and photographic methods, there are a number of reasons or benefits from procuring specimens:

1. Identification of insects is a specialty within the study of insects (entomology) based on studies by taxonomists that describe species or groups of species (e.g., families, orders, genera, etc.). Through collection and preservation efforts, new species are found and described. Many undescribed insects remain in the world, even in Texas.

2. Properly preserved and stored insect specimens can be enjoyed and studied for hundreds of years while most insects live only for a period of days to months before they die and decompose. Specimens in museums, along with the data provided on the specimen labels constitute an historic record of biological diversity and can be used to document changes in distribution and abundance of species over time. Some museums contain specimens of now-extinct insect species.

3. Names and identities of insects (and other organisms) change over time when new studies reveal the need for a name change. If specimens were used as the basis for a scientific study on, voucher specimens are submitted and stored in a recognized, reputable insect collection. Only then can researchers in the future double check to make sure the species cited in these studies were accurately identified. In some cases, specimens that looked identical to early researchers are later found to actually represent two or more species through further study or use of new techniques.

4. Insects are the most common form of wildlife encountered by people and are excellent models of living systems useful in learning about several fields of science. Most species are common and abundant and are not threatened by casual collection activities. Close observation of preserved specimens can result in an understanding of form and function of bodies (morphology and behavior), relationships between organisms or groups of organisms (systematics and evolution), methods of identifying organisms (taxonomy), and life cycles (developmental biology).

5. During the exercise of collecting insects, collectors learn about relationships between insects and their environment, the importance of habitat, keys to species survival, and the relationships between species groups such as hosts, predators and parasites, i.e., trophic levels. Closer inspection of predaceous insects, for instance, reveal adaptive features enabling those species or groups or species to capture prey or what features allow a walkingstick to mimic a twig.

6. The study of insects in collections provides knowledge that can lead to a better understanding and higher tolerance of this group of animals in our environment. Ignorance about insects and their relatives can lead to an irrational fear of insects, called entomophobia (fear of spiders is arachnaphobia), or even psychological problems such as imagining that your body is infested with insects (delusionary parasitosis). Inability to determine beneficial insects (pollinators, predators, parasites) from pest insects can lead to unnecessary pesticide (insecticide) use.

7. Insects and their relatives are fascinating creatures so unlike ourselves. Yet they share many features with humans and other animals. People of all ages can participate in the study of insects and making an insect collection is an activity to be shared with others, providing enjoyment and exercise while being educational.

8. Many insect specimens are simply beautiful to the eye. Butterfly wings have been called “nature’s canvas.” Other insects are ugly and horrifying to look at. When mounted and displayed properly, insect specimens or insect parts can become an art form similar to taxidermists that display stuffed animals or artists using paint to make a picture.

9. Insect specimens make great souvenirs. Assuming laws and regulations pertaining to the collection and transport of biological specimens are honored, specimens collected on vacation trips can make useful reminders of these trips to far-away places. Properly maintained, the specimens can last more than a person’s lifetime.

10. Making insect collections, particularly bug hunting expeditions, are really fun! In a sense it’s like a real hunting trip, except you do not need guns or hunting licenses (with exceptions in some park lands). It’s generally a lot cheaper, too! Going bug hunting as an adult can even make you feel like a kid again.


Insect Classification Lesson

Scientists have worked hard to attempt to identify all living things. They are not done yet. Almost daily, new species of plants, animals, fungus, or bacteria are discovered. Scientists have taken all the identified species on Earth and have sorted them into groups based on similar characteristics. These groups are broken down into yet smaller groups.

Dividing things into smaller, similar groups is called classification. The science of dividing, or classifying, living things is called taxonomy. The taxonomic insect classification is Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Arthropoda, and Order Insecta.

The Class Insecta can be further divided into 29-32 Orders depending upon the classification system used. Species in each order share unique characteristics that set them apart from other insects, yet have the same traits that all insects share. Let’s outline a few of the more common orders containing familiar insects.

Coleptera (beetles)

  • the largest order of any animal with approximately 370,000 known species
  • makeup 25% of all known plants and animals
  • found in every ecosystem except salt water and polar ice caps
  • the exoskeleton is very hard
  • have biting mouthparts
  • 2 pairs of wings, one for flying and one for a protective covering
  • larvae are considered “grubs”
  • life cycle – complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa, adult)

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)

  • second largest animal order with over 160,000 known species
  • have large wings covered in tiny scales
  • wings are often brilliantly colored or patterned
  • adults feed on nectar gathered by a long tube that extends from their mouths called a proboscis
  • “taste” with their feet
  • life cycle – complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa, adult)
  • differences between butterflies and moths

Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps)

  • 2 pair of wings
  • bees visit flowers to collect pollen and nectar
  • may have chewing mouthparts or tubes to collect nectar from flowers
  • can smell with their antennae
  • wasps visit flowers to prey on smaller insects (often pests)
  • well developed compound eyes
  • can be social or solitary
  • social species have a highly developed social structure
  • life cycle – complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa, adult)

Diptera (flies, gnats, mosquitoes)

  • 2 pair of wings
  • forewings are used for flight and hindwings are used for balance
  • well developed compound eyes
  • mouthparts designed to suck or pierce, not bite
  • feed on liquids
  • life cycle – complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa, adult)
  • considered pests and some are disease carriers

Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets)

  • well developed mandibles and can bite
  • 2 pair of wings – hindwings for flight and forewings are leathery wing protectors
  • large hind legs allow them to jump
  • can “sing” or “chirp” by rubbing parts of their bodies together
  • life cycle – incomplete metamorphosis (egg, nymph, adult)
  • grasshoppers eat plants, crickets hunt smaller insects

Hemiptera (“true bugs”, cicadas, aphids)

  • piercing mouthparts to suck the juice from plants or animals
  • some species have 2 pair of wings, some have 1 pair, and others have no wings
  • life cycle – incomplete metamorphosis (egg, nymph, adult)
  • considered agricultural pests

Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)

  • relatively large insects with long bodies
  • 2 pair of similarly sized wings that are transparent and veined
  • large heads and large compound eyes
  • very small antennae
  • life cycle – incomplete metamorphosis (egg, nymph, adult)
  • adults eat smaller insects

Other Common Pollinators

It&rsquos bees that we usually think of when it comes to pollination and honey bees, in particular, get the most press. But wild bees are proving to be hard workers too, especially in light of the decline in honey bee and other native pollinator numbers.

The use of solitary mason bees is being investigated, in particular for tree fruit pollination. Carpenter bees are another essential pollinator. You&rsquoll often find this bee buzzing under your home&rsquos eaves, and it is commonly mistaken for a bumblebee.

Wasps are a very important pollinator, however, they are not quite as efficient in pollinating flowers, because pollen is less likely to stick to their bodies. A blue winged wasp, Scolia dubia, particularly enjoys plants such as Solidago (Golden Rod). Paper wasps are another pollinator that gets most of its protein from caterpillars rather than pollen.


Insect Collection and Identification

Insect Collection and Identification: Techniques for the Field and Laboratory, Second Edition, is the definitive text on all aspects required for collecting and properly preparing specimens for identification. This book provides detailed taxonomic keys to insects and related arthropods, giving recent classification changes to various insect taxa, along with updated preservation materials and techniques for molecular and genomic studies. It includes methods of rearing, storing and shipping specimens, along with a supporting glossary. New sections provide suggestions on how insects and other arthropods can be used within, and outside, the formal classroom and examine currently accepted procedures for collecting insects at crime scenes.

This book is a necessary reference for entomology professionals and researchers who seek the most updated taxonomy and techniques for collection and preservation. It will serve as a valuable resource for entomology students and professionals who need illustrative and detailed information for easy arthropod identification.

Insect Collection and Identification: Techniques for the Field and Laboratory, Second Edition, is the definitive text on all aspects required for collecting and properly preparing specimens for identification. This book provides detailed taxonomic keys to insects and related arthropods, giving recent classification changes to various insect taxa, along with updated preservation materials and techniques for molecular and genomic studies. It includes methods of rearing, storing and shipping specimens, along with a supporting glossary. New sections provide suggestions on how insects and other arthropods can be used within, and outside, the formal classroom and examine currently accepted procedures for collecting insects at crime scenes.

This book is a necessary reference for entomology professionals and researchers who seek the most updated taxonomy and techniques for collection and preservation. It will serve as a valuable resource for entomology students and professionals who need illustrative and detailed information for easy arthropod identification.


Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identified. Among 1,055 female sand flies successfully analyzed for the species identification individually, 64.4% flies was classified as Sergentomyia species, whereas 35.6% was identified as P. argentipes and no P. papatasi was found. Although infection of Leishmania within the sand flies was individually examined targeting leishmanial minicircle DNA, none of the 1,055 sand flies examined were positive for Leishmania infection. The RFLP-PCR could be useful tools for taxonomic identification and Leishmania infection monitoring in endemic areas of Bangladesh.

1. Introduction

Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects belonging to the family Psychodidae in the order Diptera [1]. Hitherto, approximately 800 sand fly species have been recorded however, the majority of the species play no part in the transmission of leishmaniasis in nature, and less than 10% of sand flies has been incriminated as vector species of leishmaniasis [1–3]. In addition, each vector species can only support the development of specific Leishmania species and consequently can only transmit certain species of the genus [2]. Thus, surveillance of prevalent sand fly species and Leishmania infection within sand flies in each endemic area is important for prediction of the risk of transmission and expansion of the disease.

Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis: VL) caused by Leishmania donovani complex is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and the second-largest parasitic killer in the world with an estimated 500,000 new cases and more than 50,000 deaths each year. More than 90% of the world’s cases of VL is in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Brazil, affecting the poorest of poor people [4]. Phlebotomus argentipes has been implicated as the only vector for VL in the north-east Indian subcontinent (part of India, Bangladesh, Nepal) [5, 6].

In Bangladesh, Mymensingh district is the most highly endemic areas of VL and accounted for more than 50% of the total cases reported from 2000 to 2004 [7]. However, except for one particular instance [8], information on distributing sand fly species and vector species responsible for the disease transmission is scarce despite its potential importance for the disease and vector control in this area.

Taxonomic identification of sand fly species except for some male species (terminal genitalia) mostly based on internal characteristics of females (cibarium, pharynx, and spermatheca) [6, 9]. Thus, identification of sand fly species requires specific knowledge and skills. In recent time there is a lack of skilled entomologist in Bangladesh and at the same time new generations are not interested to take this subject as a profession due to some coherent reasons [10]. Under the circumstances a molecular approach to identify the sand fly species will help the country to plan their control program successfully.

In the present study, (1) genotyping of sand flies distributing in the VL endemic area was developed by a RFLP-PCR of 18S rRNA gene, (2) sand flies caught in the area were identified with the RFLP-PCR and infection status of sand fly species by the Leishmania was also examined.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Collection of Sand Flies

Sand fly collection was made from May to July 2008 in Trishal of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. The sand flies were captured in houses from using CDC miniature light trap (Model 512, John W. Hock Company, FL, USA). The traps were set at 4:00–7:00 p.m. and collected at 6:00–9:00 a.m. in the next morning. The sand flies were kept in 70% ethanol and stored at room temperature until further use. A total of 6,123 sand flies were collected from 169 houses in single night collection.

2.2. Morphological Identification of Sand Flies

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) mounting medium (BioQuip Products, Inc, Los Angeles, CA, USA) was used for slide preparations of morphological classification, and 1,712 flies were identified under a microscope with the keys developed by Lewis [11]. Based on internal and external morphological characteristics, Phlebotomus argentipes and two Sergentomyia species were identified in this pool [12]. Another ethanol-fixed 2,708 flies were examined under a stereomicroscope, and 1,342 (49.6%) female flies were subjected to a genotyping method [12].

2.3. Genotyping by RFLP-PCR

DNA extracts from sand flies morphologically identified as P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and two Sergentomyia species were analyzed by RFLP-PCR. PCR was carried out with Lu.18S 1S and Lu.18S AR primers and Lu.18S 1S and Lu.18S 1R primers with which amplified approximately 2,000 bp and 450 bpb fragments of sand fly 18S rRNA gene, respectively [13–16]. The amplicons were digested by AfaI or HinfI restriction enzyme.

2.4. DNA Extraction from Individual Sand Flies

Extraction of DNA from individual sand flies was performed using 96-well U-bottom plates [13–16]. Briefly, ethanol-fixed sand flies were placed individually in each well of 96-well plates, dried at least for 1 hour at room temperature to evaporate ethanol, and lysed in DNA extraction buffer without homogenization. The samples were incubated at 37°C for 12 hours and directly used as the templates for Ampdirect PCR without purification process such as phenol/chloroform extraction. DNA samples from 1,342 field caught female sand flies were subjected to RFLP-PCR analysis for the species identification. Infection of Leishmania within the sand flies was individually examined targeting leishmanial minicircle DNA [13–16]. The method is sensitive enough to detect only one Leishmania parasite within individual sand flies [13, 14].

3. Results

The RFLP patterns of morphologically identified P. argentipes and two Sergentomyia species, A and B, were analyzed on the 18S rRNA fragments of the 2,000 bp. The three species were clearly differentiated by single digestion with AfaI or HinfI restriction enzyme (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). On the other hand, RFLP analysis of the 450 bp amplicons with HinfI differentiated P. argentipes, P. papatasi from Sergentomyia species, although two Sergentomyia species were indistinguishable (Figure 2). As preliminary study of the analysis showed that the 2,000 bp target was difficult to be amplified in part of the sand fly samples, the RFLP-PCR analysis of the 450 bp amplicon was employed for further genotyping of the samples from the field. The less efficiency for the amplification of longer fragments is probably associated with the postmortem changes that may occur in dead specimens in the light trap.


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Photo © Joyce Gross

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Identification of LARK as a novel and conserved G-quadruplex binding protein in invertebrates and vertebrates

Double-stranded DNAs are usually present in the form of linear B-form double-helix with the base pairs of adenine (A) and thymine (T) or cytosine (C) and guanine (G), but G-rich DNA can form four-stranded G-quadruplex (G4) structures, which plays important roles in transcription, replication, translation and protection of telomeres. In this study, a RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing protein, BmLARK, was identified and demonstrated to bind G4 structures in the promoters of a transcription factor BmPOUM2 and other three unidentified genes of Bombyx mori, as well as three well-defined G4 structures in the human genes. Homologous LARKs from Bombyx mori, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens bound G4 structures in BmPOUM2 and other genes in B. mori and H. sapiens. Upon binding, LARK facilitated the formation and stability of the G4 structure, enhancing the transcription of target genes. The G4 structure was visualized in vivo in cells and testis from invertebrate B. mori and vertebrate Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The results of this study strongly suggest that LARK is a novel and conserved G4-binding protein and that the G4 structure may have developed into an elaborate epigenetic mechanism of gene transcription regulation during evolution.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Figures

Identification and binding of the…

Identification and binding of the BmLARK protein to G4 structures in BmPOUM2 promoter.…

Circular dichroism (CD) analyses of…

Circular dichroism (CD) analyses of BmLARK binding with other G4 structures in genes…

MST measurements of the binding…

MST measurements of the binding of the G4 structures with BmLARK at varying…

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of…

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of the BmLARK binding with G4 structures in Bm…

Function of BmLARK binding to…

Function of BmLARK binding to G4 structures in the transcriptional regulation of genes.…

Analyses of the binding of…

Analyses of the binding of various LARK proteins to G4 structures by EMSA.…

Binding regions identification and effect…

Binding regions identification and effect of BmLARK on the G4 structure of BmPOUM2…

Visualization of G4 structures in…

Visualization of G4 structures in cell nuclei and chromatin. ( A ) Diagram…


To use this key you will need to know the basic anatomy – the body parts – of insects. Use this labeled picture of a grasshopper as a reference when the key asks you to look at certain body parts. Most insects will have all of these body parts, with a few exceptions (many insects don’t have wings, for example, and most insects other than grasshoppers and crickets do not have ears).

Note: Information in this section is based mainly on the "Kentucky 4-H Entomology: Key to Common Insect Orders." Used with permission.


Watch the video: insects in bangladesh (July 2022).


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