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What kind of microorganism is this?

What kind of microorganism is this?



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It moves like a worm pretty much. I found it in a pretty big pond with brackish water. The water temperature was around 10 celsius.

Here's a video of it moving


Now I cannot really tell the name of it without knowing more of its properties and characteristic features, e.g. size. (I am afraid I am not very good with faces, especially of microorganism :D)

But I am 90% sure it might be an Oligochaete


Three Domain System

The Three Domain System, developed by Carl Woese in 1990, is a system for classifying biological organisms.

Before Woese's discovery of archaea as distinct from bacteria in 1977, scientists believed there were only two types of life: eukarya and bacteria.

The highest ranking previously used had been "kingdom," based on the Five Kingdom system adopted in the late 1960s. This classification system model is based on principles developed by Swedish scientist Carolus Linnaeus, whose hierarchical system groups organisms based on common physical characteristics.


Bacteria

Bacteria are unicellular organisms. The cells are described as prokaryotic because they lack a nucleus. They exist in four major shapes: bacillus (rod shape), coccus (spherical shape), spirilla (spiral shape), and vibrio (curved shape). Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall they divide by binary fission and they may possess flagella for motility. The difference in their cell wall structure is a major feature used in classifying these organisms.

According to the way their cell wall structure stains, bacteria can be classified as either Gram-positive or Gram-negative when using the Gram staining. Bacteria can be further divided based on their response to gaseous oxygen into the following groups: aerobic (living in the presence of oxygen), anaerobic (living without oxygen), and facultative anaerobes (can live in both environments).

According to the way they obtain energy, bacteria are classified as heterotrophs or autotrophs. Autotrophs make their own food by using the energy of sunlight or chemical reactions, in which case they are called chemoautotrophs. Heterotrophs obtain their energy by consuming other organisms. Bacteria that use decaying life forms as a source of energy are called saprophytes.


Fungi

Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that, like algae, have rigid cell walls and may be either unicellular or multicellular. Some may be microscopic in size, while others form much larger structures, such as mushrooms and bracket fungi that grow in soil or on damp logs. Unlike algae, fungi do not contain chlorophyll and thus cannot carry out photosynthesis. Fungi do not ingest food but must absorb dissolved nutrients from the environment. Of the fungi classified as microorganisms, those that are multicellular and produce filamentous, microscopic structures are frequently called molds, whereas yeasts are unicellular fungi.

In molds cells are cylindrical in shape and are attached end to end to form threadlike filaments (hyphae) that may bear spores. Individually, hyphae are microscopic in size. However, when large numbers of hyphae accumulate—for example, on a slice of bread or fruit jelly—they form a fuzzy mass called a mycelium that is visible to the naked eye.

The unicellular yeasts have many forms, from spherical to egg-shaped to filamentous. Yeasts are noted for their ability to ferment carbohydrates, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide in products such as wine and bread.


What Are Types of Microorganisms and Their Examples

Within nature, different types of microorganisms can be identified. Some of them are the following:

  • Virus. They are the most basic microbes and can only be perceived as withelectron microscopes. To reproduce, they must infect other unicellular organisms, which are inoculated with their genetic content (they can only reproduce in a host cell).
  • Cyanophyly seaweed. These are large bacteria and are characterized by photosynthesis in a very similar way to plants, that is, oxygenic (they give off oxygen).
  • Fungi. Just like yeast, many of the organisms that make up the Fungi Kingdom are microscopic.
  • You protists. These are eukaryotic single-celled microbes of great volume. They usually develop in aquatic environments, which can be fresh or saltwater, or in very humid places. Although some varieties develop parasitic lives, in general, these organisms prey on other microorganisms when feeding.
  • Arches and bacteria. These are two types of prokaryotic and unicellular organisms, and they are the simplest microbes. They make up the group of microbes with the greatest presence on Earth, they feed on the habitat they are in and their reproduction is based on the division of their genetic material.

What is a microorganism?

Microorganisms are those organisms that, due to their small size, are imperceptible to the eye. Also called “microbes,” these organisms have a very basic biological organization: a significant proportion of them have only a single cell. In addition, they are characterized by numerous varieties, of different shapes and sizes.

The unicellular organisms prokaryotes and eukaryotes, along with certain fungi and algae make up the universe of microbes.

Characteristics of microorganisms

Microorganisms have a number of characteristics in common:

  • Their size is so small that they are imperceptible to the naked eye.
  • Your metabolic reactions are very fast.
  • The relationship they have with the environment is intense.
  • They need water to metabolize.
  • They develop dispersion and resistance mechanisms.
  • They have the ability to alter the environment in which they are found.
  • They reproduce at high speed.
  • Its activity is indispensable for life on the planet.
  • They are part of the biogeochemical cycles that are carried out in nature.
  • They are very light, so they are transported in the air.

Harmful and beneficial microorganisms

There are microorganisms that are harmful to the health of the people, because the attack vital cells, can cause diseases that sometimes can lead to death. Some of these microbes are the following:

  • Bacteria They are microorganisms that belong to the Monera Kingdom, release toxins and can survive inside or outside a cell. In addition, they are unicellular and lack a nucleus. Not all bacteria are pathogenic, but some can be beneficial for health or neutral.
  • Virus. These microbes, which have a spiral or spherical shape, can only reproduce within a host cell. These microbes, which can be infectious, have a single type of nucleic acid and are always pathogenic. Viruses can never be eliminated with antibiotics and only their symptoms can be attacked.
  • Mushrooms. These microbes can generate infectious diseases and develop outside their bodies.

Among the microorganisms, there are varieties that are beneficial for life, the environment and the health of the human being. Here are some examples where microbes intervene beneficially:

  • Food industry. Microbes play a fundamental role in the production of certain products. For example, yogurt, cheese or beer are the results of fermented foods, thanks to the action of microbes. In these cases, the microbes produce lactic acid that facilitates food preservation.
  • Body. There are microorganisms that participate in certain processes within the human body, such as digestion and even act in defense of other organisms that can affect health.
  • Trash. Through certain biological processes such as stabilization or decomposition, the microbes clean the waste. They end up converting waste into humus or compost.
  • Agriculture. Many of the microorganisms that inhabit the soil facilitate agricultural production. Either because they act as pesticides or because they help the growth of plants.

Examples of microorganisms

Some of the best known and studied microorganisms, which can cause diseases, are the following:


The basic principles of modern biology

Four principles unify modern biology, according to the book "Managing Science" (Springer New York, 2010):

  1. Cell theory is the principle that all living things are made of fundamental units called cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells.
  2. Gene theory is the principle that all living things have DNA, molecules that code the structures and functions of cells and get passed to offspring. is the principle that all living things maintain a state of balance that enables organisms to survive in their environment. is the principle that describes how all living things can change to have traits that enable them to survive better in their environments. These traits result from random mutations in the organism's genes that are "selected" via a process called natural selection. During natural selection, organisms that have traits better-suited for their environment have higher rates of survival, and then pass those traits to their offspring.

Microorganisms

The vast majority of life on Earth is invisible to the human eye. Microscopic organisms, known as microorganisms or microbes, are found in huge numbers in almost every environment on Earth. Most microbes, such as bacteria and archaea, consist of only a single cell. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology.

All branches of life, including animals and plants, contain species of microorganisms. Most commonly, however, the study of microscopic organisms focuses on groups such as bacteria, protists, and fungi. In recent years, significant effort has focused on the study of a little-known group of microbes called Archaea.

Bacteria are ancient, microscopic organisms found everywhere on Earth. They are single-celled microbes with prokaryotic cells and have been around for over 3.5 billion years.

Archaea is a vast group of microorganisms that we know very little about. They are commonly found in extreme environments such as hot springs and make up one of the three Domains of life.

The majority of eukaryotic organisms belong to a diverse group referred to as protista. A protist is any eukaryote that isn’t an animal, plant or fungi and includes organisms such as algae and amoebas.

Fungi are a kingdom of mostly microscopic organisms that are closely related to animals. They include spore-producing organisms such as mushrooms, yeast, truffles, and some molds.

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  • The ability of specific microorganisms to produce specialized enzymes and proteins has been exploited for many purposes in industry.
  • Industrial microorganisms are used to produce many things, including food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and construction materials.
  • Microorganisms can be genetically modified or engineered to aid in large-scale production.
  • exopolysaccharide: a type of sugar-composed polymer secreted by a microorganism into the external environment
  • archaea: a taxonomic domain of single-celled organisms lacking nuclei that are fundamentally from bacteria.

Industrial microbiology includes the use of microorganisms to manufacture food or industrial products in large quantities. Numerous microorganisms are used within industrial microbiology these include naturally occurring organisms, laboratory selected mutants, or even genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Currently, the debate in the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food sources is gaining both momentum, with more and more supporters on both sides. However, the use of microorganisms at an industrial level is deeply rooted into today&rsquos society. The following is a brief overview of the various microorganisms that have industrial uses, and of the roles they play.

Archaea are specific types of prokaryotic microbes that exhibit the ability to sustain populations in unusual and typically harsh environments. Those suriving in the most hostile and extreme settings are known as extremophile archaea. The isolation and identification of various types of Archaea, particularly the extremophile archaea, have allowed for analysis of their metabolic processes, which have then been manipulated and utilized for industrial purposes.

Extremophile archaea species are of particular interest due to the enzymes and molecules they produce that allow them to sustain life in extreme climates, including very high or low temperatures, extremely acid or base solutions, or when exposed to other harmful factors, including radiation. Specific enzymes which have been isolated and used for industrial purposes include thermostable DNA polymerases from the Pyrococcus furiosus. This type of polymerase isa common tool in molecular biology it is capable of withstanding the high temperatures that are necessary to complete polymerase chain reactions. Additional enzymes isolated from Pyrococcus speciesinclude specific types of amylases and galactosidases which allow food processing to occur at high temperatrues as well.

Corynebacteria are characterized by their diverse origins. They are found in numerous ecological niches and are most often used in industry for the mass production of amino acids and nutritional factors. In particular, the amino acids produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum include the amino acid glutamic acid. Glutamic acid is used as a common additive in food production, where it is known as monosodium glutamate (MSG). Corynebacterium can also be used in steroid conversion and in the degradation of hydrocarbons. Steroid conversion is an important process in the development of pharmaceuticals. Degradation of hydrocarbons is key in the breakdown and elimination of environmental toxins. Items such as plastics and oils are hydrocarbons the use of microorganisms which exhibit the ability to breakdown these compounds is critical for environmental protection.

Figure: Corynebacterium: Corynebacterium species are often used to mass produce amino acids utilized in food processing.

Xanthomonas, a type of Proteobacteria, is known for its ability to cause disease in plants. The bacterial species which are classified under Xanthomonasexhibit the ability to produce the acidic exopolysaccharide commonly marketed as xanthan gum, used as a thickening and stabilizing agent in foods and in cosmetic ingredients to prevent separation.

Another type of microorganism utilized by industry includes various species of Aspergillus. Thisgenusincludes several hundred types of mold. Aspergillus has become a key component in industrial microbiology, where it is used in the production of alcoholic beverages and pharmaceutical development. Aspergillus niger is most commonly used to produce citric acid, which is used in numerous products ranging from household cleaners, pharmaceuticals, foods, cosmetics, photography and construction. Aspergillus is also commonly used in large-scale fermentation in the production of alcoholic beverages such as Japanese sake.


Microorganisms: Definition, Types and Importance (With Figure) | Biology

Microorganisms (Gk: micros: small organisms: organisms) or microbes are living forms, whose size is so small that they are usually not visible to naked human eye.

B. Types of Microorganisms:

Microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, microscopic fungi and algae.

They are defined as follows:

They are prokaryotic, unicellular microorganisms, which lack chlorophyll pigments.

Viruses are ultra-microscopic, non-cellular living particles, composed solely of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) core, surrounded by a protein envelope called capsid.

They are eukaryotic, unicellular microorganisms, which lack cell wall.

They are eukaryotic, heterotrophic microorganisms that fail to show any cellular differentiation into true tissues like root, stem or leaf and in which vascular system is absent.

They are eukaryotic, autotrophic microorganisms that fail to show any cellular differentiation into true tissues like root, stem or leaf and in which vascular system is absent.

C. Importance of Microorganisms:

Microorganisms are present in almost all places on the earth. Despite their minute size, they have tremendous importance in the maintenance of life on the earth. Due to the difference in the activities of different microbes, they influence life in different ways.

Some of them are very helpful, for example, those which fix atmospheric nitrogen into biologically useful forms, those which help in curd formation, those which recycle dead materials by degrading them into simpler substances and those which help in preparation of wine (Figure 1.1).

Some other microbes are very harmful in that they cause diseases in plants and animals, spoil food or raw materials of food kept in normal conditions as well as they degrade rubber, paints, textiles, metals and even insulations on electric wires.

Therefore, it is essential to study these microbes in details, so that by various techniques their harmful effects can be overcome and beneficial effects be utilised for enhancing quality of life on the earth.

D. What is Microbiology?

The discipline of science, which deals with the study of microorganisms, is known as ‘microbiology’.


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