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2.29: Electron Transport - Biology

2.29: Electron Transport - Biology



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Ways to transport. To make ATP, energy must be ‘‘transported’’ - first from glucose to NADH, and then somehow passed to ATP. How is this done? With an electron transport chain.

Cellular Respiration Stage III: Electron Transport

Electron transport is the final stage of aerobic respiration. In this stage, energy from NADH and FADH2, which result from the Krebs cycle, is transferred to ATP. Can you predict how this happens? (Hint: How does electron transport occur in photosynthesis?)

See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1engJR_XWVU for an overview of the electron transport chain.

Transporting Electrons

High-energy electrons are released from NADH and FADH2, and they move along electron transport chains, like those used in photosynthesis. The electron transport chains are on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. As the high-energy electrons are transported along the chains, some of their energy is captured. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions(from NADH and FADH2) across the inner membrane, from the matrix into the intermembrane space. Electron transport in a mitochondrion is shown in Figure below.

Electron-transport chains on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion carry out the last stage of cellular respiration.

Making ATP

The pumping of hydrogen ions across the inner membrane creates a greater concentration of the ions in the intermembrane space than in the matrix. This chemiosmotic gradient causes the ions to flow back across the membrane into the matrix, where their concentration is lower.ATP synthase acts as a channel protein, helping the hydrogen ions cross the membrane. It also acts as an enzyme, forming ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. After passing through the electron-transport chain, the “spent” electrons combine with oxygen to formwater. This is why oxygen is needed; in the absence of oxygen, this process cannot occur.

How much ATP is produced? The two NADH produced in the cytoplasm produces 2 to 3 ATP each (4 to 6 total) by the electron transport system, the 8 NADH produced in the mitochondriaproduces three ATP each (24 total), and the 2 FADH2 adds its electrons to the electron transport system at a lower level than NADH, so they produce two ATP each (4 total). This results in the formation of 34 ATP during the electron transport stage.

A summary of this process can be seen at the following sites: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fgCcFXUZRk (17:16) and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W_Q17tqw_7A (4:59).

Summary

  • Electron transport is the final stage of aerobic respiration. In this stage, energy from NADH and FADH2 is transferred to ATP.
  • During electron transport, energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the mitochondrial inner membrane, from the matrix into the intermembrane space.
  • A chemiosmotic gradient causes hydrogen ions to flow back across the mitochondrial membrane into the matrix, through ATP synthase, producing ATP.
  • See Mitochondria at http://johnkyrk.com/mitochondrion.html for a detailed summary.

Review

  1. Summarize the overall task of Stage III of aerobic respiration.
  2. Explain the chemiosmotic gradient.
  3. What is the maximum number of ATP molecules that can be produced during the electron transport stage of aerobic respiration?

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NADH and FADH2 can be used in the electron transport chain to create ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. During oxidative phosphorylation which takes place in .

Nucleophilic substitution Nucleophilic substitution reaction is that in which attacking nucleophile replaces a leaving group. Attacking nucleophile: specie .

During this cycle, 2 ATP, 8 NADH, and 2 FADH2 per glucose are produced. Ultimately electrons are removed from NADH in the electron chain and moved to oxygen .

Glycolysis takes place outside the mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Glycolysis breaks down a molecule of glucose which has six carbon, down into two molecules .

Pyrophosphate is also known as ester which is formed by the condensation of inorganic phosphates with phosphorylated biological compounds as result a high e.

Metallic and Covalent Bonding: Metallic bonding is the electrostatic force of attraction between positive ions known as cations and delocalised electrons in.

Electrons can be core or valence. The core electrons are like nobel gases and the valance are the rest. Like noble gases, core electrons do not react, but va.

ATP (energy) can be produced only when a proton motive force (pmf) is generated across this membrane. The pmf is defined as the potential gradient across the.

This then is split evenly (a phosphate and 3 carbon each) into triose phosphates. After oxidation occurs, hydrogen is removed and is used in order for NAD to.

In the light dependent reaction, light hits the chlorophyll and emits two high energy electrons, which passes through a series of reaction that generates ATP.


Footnotes

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Watch the video: Electron Transport Chain Oxidative Phosphorylation (August 2022).