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What are chiasmata?

What are chiasmata?



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I have a confusion in understanding what chiasmata are. My 'NCERT' book says 'The beginning of diplotene is recognised by the dissolution of synaptonemal complex and the tendency of the recombined homologous chromosome of the bivalents to separate from each other except at the site of crossovers. These X shaped structures, are called chiasmata.'

I am not able to imagine what chiasmata look like with this definition '… X shaped structures… ' moreover I am not sure whether this definition is correct for whomsoever I have asked gave me somewhat different definition.


We need to make a distinction between the genetic map of a chromosome, which is usually built up from meiotic recombination frequencies between linked genetic markers, the physical map of a chromosome, which used to be made up of clones and contigs, but is now usually derived from the reference genome sequence, and the cytological map of a chromosome, which is usually built from micrographs of fixed specimens.

In other words, you can only see chiasmata using a microscope. They are named after the Greek letter named 'chi' which looks like our letter 'X', and are the cytological manifestation of the physical crossover, or crossing over, that took place after meiotic recombination, but before resolution.

Chiasmata are essential for proper segregation on the meiotic spindle because they provide the physical tension, or glue, that the microtubules pull against. If the centromere of each replicated pair attaches to a different spindle pole, then as the microtubules pull, the chromosomes will align in the middle of the spindle.


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Chiasmata Definition Biology. Biology glossary search by everythingbio.com : In genetics, the points at which members of a chromosome pair are in contact during the prophase of meiosis and because of which recombination, or crossing over, occurs on separation.

Chiasmata definition is an important structural component in every areas of their human anatomy, because of its vital part in differentiation and cellular rise. A crossing or decussation, as that of the optic nerves at the base of the brain. Chiasmata)the point at which paired homologous chromosomes remain in contact as they begin to separate during the first prophase of meiosis, forming a cross shape. Biology glossary search by everythingbio.com : Chiasmata definition can be a eukaryotic polysaccharide, a molecule which is also known as also a component of the cell membrane, and a unit of tissues.

Chiasmata Definition. Crossword Dictionary. from i.ytimg.com A number of chiasmata can usually be identified and at these points crossing over occurs. Chiasmata definition is an important factor in all areas of their body, for the vital role in cellular rise and differentiation. It is the point representing the crossover where the homologous chromosomes are joined to each other. Anatomy a crossing or intersection of two tracts, as of nerves or ligaments. This a brief video on chiasmata and some basics of it.

In genetics, the points at which members of a chromosome pair are in contact during the prophase of meiosis and because of which recombination, or crossing over, occurs on separation.

Terminal chiasmata in a dictionary of genetics » subjects: In genetics, the points at which members of a chromosome pair are in contact during the prophase of meiosis and because of which recombination, or crossing over, occurs on separation. Posted on may 10, 2020 by frank melin. A point of overlap of paired chromatids at which fusion and exchange of genetic material take place during prophase of meiosis. This a brief video on chiasmata and some basics of it. It is the point representing the crossover where the homologous chromosomes are joined to each other. Anatomy a crossing or intersection of two tracts, as of nerves or ligaments. Chiasmata definition can be a molecule which is also known as an component of tissues, actually a polysaccharide, and also a important component of the cell membrane chiasmata definition is also an important structural element in every areas of their human anatomy, because of its vital part in cellular growth and differentiation. At a given chiasma, an exchange of genetic material can occur between both chromatids, what is called a chromosomal crossover, but this is much more frequent during meiosis than mitosis. My 'ncert' book says 'the beginning of diplotene is recognised by the dissolution of synaptonemal complex and the tendency of the recombined homologous chromosome of the bivalents to separate from each other except at the site of crossovers. A number of chiasmata can usually be identified and at these points crossing over occurs. Anatomy the crossing over of two parts or structures, such as the fibres of the optic nerves in the brain 'a given factor s can affect the recombination rate r through a change in the number of chiasmata occurring during meiosis.'

'a given factor s can affect the recombination rate r through a change in the number of chiasmata occurring during meiosis.' This a brief video on chiasmata and some basics of it. A point of overlap of paired chromatids at which fusion and exchange of genetic material take place during prophase of meiosis. Chiasmata definition is an important factor of all tissues of their body, because of its vital part in differentiation and. It is the point representing the crossover where the homologous chromosomes are joined to each other.

molecular biology - Do only one or both pairs of . from i.stack.imgur.com 2 biology a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands. Chiasma (genetics) a chiasma (plural: Posted on may 10, 2020 by frank melin. We would like to show you a description here but the site won't allow us. Chiasmata definition biology chiasmata definition can be also a molecule which is also referred to as a unit of cells, a polysaccharide, and also also a component of the cell membrane chiasmata definition is an important structural aspect within all tissues of the human anatomy, for the vital part in differentiation and cellular rise.

Chiasmata)the point at which paired homologous chromosomes remain in contact as they begin to separate during the first prophase of meiosis, forming a cross shape.

Anatomy a crossing or intersection of two tracts, as of nerves or ligaments. Chiasmata definition is an important factor in all areas of their body, for the vital role in cellular rise and differentiation. It is the point representing the crossover where the homologous chromosomes are joined to each other. The crossing over brings variations which are raw material of evolution. Chiasmata)the point at which paired homologous chromosomes remain in contact as they begin to separate during the first prophase of meiosis, forming a cross shape. Membranes would be the levels of cells, and grade miners they are responsible for guarding cells by threatening bacteria and viruses. In genetics, the points at which members of a chromosome pair are in contact during the prophase of meiosis and because of which recombination, or crossing over, occurs on separation. Terminal chiasmata in a dictionary of genetics » subjects: During a chromosomal crossover, an exchange of genetic material can occur over the chiasmata between both chromatid. Posted on may 10, 2020 by frank melin. 2 biology a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands. Anatomy a crossing or intersection of two tracts, as of nerves or ligaments. These x shaped structures, are called chiasmata.'

Anatomy a crossing or intersection of two tracts, as of nerves or ligaments. Anatomy the crossing over of two parts or structures, such as the fibres of the optic nerves in the brain Biology glossary search by everythingbio.com : 2 biology a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands. Chiasmata)the point at which paired homologous chromosomes remain in contact as they begin to separate during the first prophase of meiosis, forming a cross shape.

Homologous chromosome - Simple English Wikipedia, the free . from upload.wikimedia.org These x shaped structures, are called chiasmata.' The crossing over brings variations which are raw material of evolution. Chiasmata definition is an important factor in all areas of their body, for the vital role in cellular rise and differentiation. Chiasmata are specialized chromatin structures that link homologous chromosomes together until anaphase i (figs. Full article >>> myspace music profile for chiasma.

The crossing over brings variations which are raw material of evolution.

2 biology a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands. 'a given factor s can affect the recombination rate r through a change in the number of chiasmata occurring during meiosis.' We would like to show you a description here but the site won't allow us. It is the point representing the crossover where the homologous chromosomes are joined to each other. These x shaped structures, are called chiasmata.' Chiasma definition, a crossing or decussation, as that of the optic nerves at the base of the brain. Biology glossary search by everythingbio.com : Anatomy the crossing over of two parts or structures, such as the fibres of the optic nerves in the brain Chiasmata definition can be a eukaryotic polysaccharide, a molecule which is also known as also a component of the cell membrane, and a unit of tissues. 2 biology a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands. Posted on may 10, 2020 by frank melin. A number of chiasmata can usually be identified and at these points crossing over occurs. If you are asking for cell biology, chiasma is a point of overlap of paired chromatids at which fusion and exchange of genetic material take place during prophase of meiosis.

Source: image.slidesharecdn.com

We would like to show you a description here but the site won't allow us. This a brief video on chiasmata and some basics of it. It is the point representing the crossover where the homologous chromosomes are joined to each other. Chiasmata definition biology chiasmata definition can be also a molecule which is also referred to as a unit of cells, a polysaccharide, and also also a component of the cell membrane chiasmata definition is an important structural aspect within all tissues of the human anatomy, for the vital part in differentiation and cellular rise. Chiasmata definition can be a eukaryotic polysaccharide, a molecule which is also known as also a component of the cell membrane, and a unit of tissues.

In genetics, the points at which members of a chromosome pair are in contact during the prophase of meiosis and because of which recombination, or crossing over, occurs on separation. In genetics, a chiasma (pl. Anatomy a crossing or intersection of two tracts, as of nerves or ligaments. These x shaped structures, are called chiasmata.' Chiasmata definition can be a eukaryotic polysaccharide, a molecule which is also known as also a component of the cell membrane, and a unit of tissues.

If you are asking for cell biology, chiasma is a point of overlap of paired chromatids at which fusion and exchange of genetic material take place during prophase of meiosis. Posted on may 10, 2020 by frank melin. It is the point representing the crossover where the homologous chromosomes are joined to each other. Full article >>> myspace music profile for chiasma. Chiasmata definition can be a eukaryotic polysaccharide, a molecule which is also known as also a component of the cell membrane, and a unit of tissues.

A crossing or decussation, as that of the optic nerves at the base of the brain. In genetics, a chiasma (pl. During a chromosomal crossover, an exchange of genetic material can occur over the chiasmata between both chromatid. Chiasmata definition can be a eukaryotic polysaccharide, a molecule which is also known as also a component of the cell membrane, and a unit of tissues. Chiasmata)the point at which paired homologous chromosomes remain in contact as they begin to separate during the first prophase of meiosis, forming a cross shape.

2 biology a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands. Chiasmata definition biology chiasmata definition can be also a molecule which is also referred to as a unit of cells, a polysaccharide, and also also a component of the cell membrane chiasmata definition is an important structural aspect within all tissues of the human anatomy, for the vital part in differentiation and cellular rise. Anatomy a crossing or intersection of two tracts, as of nerves or ligaments. If you are asking for cell biology, chiasma is a point of overlap of paired chromatids at which fusion and exchange of genetic material take place during prophase of meiosis. 2 biology a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands.

They form at sites where programmed dna breaks generated by spo11 undergo the full recombination pathway to generate crossovers.

Source: image.slidesharecdn.com

These x shaped structures, are called chiasmata.'

Source: s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com

A point of overlap of paired chromatids at which fusion and exchange of genetic material take place during prophase of meiosis.

2 biology a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands.

Chiasmata definition can be a molecule which is also known as an component of tissues, actually a polysaccharide, and also a important component of the cell membrane chiasmata definition is also an important structural element in every areas of their human anatomy, because of its vital part in cellular growth and differentiation.


Chiasmata Definition is actually really a polysaccharide, a sugar-like molecule which is also referred to as also a important part of the cell membrane, and also a structural component of cells

Chiasmata Definition is also an important element within all tissues of their human anatomy, for the vital role in differentiation and cellular rise.

Membranes will be the outer layers of cells, grademiners promo codes and they’re responsible for defending cells by threatening viruses and bacteria and viruses. Membranes support regulate the distribution of nutrients between cells’ interior and outside. A significant function of chiasmata could be the regulation of cell development.

Chiasmata usually are perhaps not merely included with development regulation but also at the distinction of cells in the cell membrane. The chiasmata are liable for an organism’s hereditary makeup. One of the most significant structures within a cell may be the https://grademiners.eu/ membrane.

Chiasmata are an essential structural part of various types of cells. Two forms that were membrane are formed After a cell divides. Even a morphogen, such as transcription factors, is necessary for creation of the membrane. Within this membrane, organelles and hereditary information are located.

Chiasmata assist in the procedure for protein synthesis, also in membranes that are certain they’re responsible for regulating the amount of their protein conversion approach. You’ll find 3 layers from the cell membrane: lipid, protein, and vitamin, which include nucleic acids and fatty acids.

Chiasmata are also crucial in cell regeneration. When a form of cell division occurs that involves development of their https://market.edugorilla.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2016/09/s7-1.png first tissue at the cell, this procedure happens phone. Besides this also, chiasmata additionally play a part in establishing brain role that is normal.

Chiasmata are an significant part all living creatures. They are associated with regulating differentiation, development, growth, and memory. Chiasmata are critical in the introduction of this nucleus, plus it can help in cell branch, and the multiplication of cell division.

Chiasmata are used in practically all the body’s parts, and also maybe not just in the mind. The brain is extremely essential and this polysaccharide that is eukaryotic can be found in nearly all parts of the body. Hence, it has been projected that chiasmata is found in significantly more than 50 percent of the body’s cells.


Chiasmata Definition is just actually a eukaryotic polysaccharide, also a sugar-like molecule which is additionally referred to as an component of tissues, and also a big part of the cell membrane

Chiasmata Definition is an important factor in all areas of their body, for the vital role in cellular rise and differentiation.

Membranes will be the outer layers of cells, and they are grademiners promo code liable for guarding cells from threatening bacteria and viruses. Membranes help modulate the distribution of nourishment between outside and the interior of cells. A significant function of chiasmata is that the regulation of cell growth.

Chiasmata are perhaps not included in development regulation however also in the differentiation of tissues from the cell membranes. The chiasmata are liable to an organism’s genetic makeup. Some of the more important structures within a cell is that your membrane.

Chiasmata are still an important https://grademiners.eu/ component of many kinds of cells. Two strains that were membrane are formed when a cell divides. A morphogen, such as transcription factors, is crucial for creation of their membrane. Within this second membrane, hereditary info and organelles are .

Chiasmata assist at the procedure for protein synthesis, also in membranes they’re accountable for regulating the speed of the protein intake approach. You will find three layers in the cell membrane: vitamin, and lipid, protein, which comprise both nucleic acids and essential fatty acids.

Chiasmata are likewise important in cell proliferation. This procedure happens when a sort of cell division does occur which calls for formation of their tissue from your cell. https://math.mit.edu/images/grad-students-2018-2019-orig.jpg Besides this, chiasmata play play a role in establishing brain role that is normal.

Chiasmata are still an significant part most living creatures. Not only that, they are involved in regulating development, growth, differentiation, and memory. Chiasmata are vital in the invention of this nucleus, and it helps from cell division, and the multiplication of cell division.

Chiasmata are used in practically all the parts of your body, and not just in the brain. Mental performance is quite important and this polysaccharide are seen in most areas of your whole body. Hence, it has been estimated that chiasmata can be seen in significantly more than 50 percent of the human body’s cells.


Chiasmata Definition can be a eukaryotic polysaccharide, a molecule which is also known as also a component of the cell membrane, and a unit of tissues

Chiasmata Definition is an important factor of all tissues of their body, because of its vital part in differentiation and cellular rise.

Membranes are the outer levels of cells, and they are liable for guarding cells from threatening viruses grademiners discount code and bacteria . Membranes support modulate the supply of nutrients between your inner and exterior of cells. A vital role of chiasmata may be that the regulation of cell growth.

Chiasmata usually are perhaps not included in development regulation however also at the differentiation of cells at the cell membrane. The chiasmata are liable to an organism’s genetic makeup. One of the largest structures inside a cell could be that the membrane.

Chiasmata are an essential structural part of several types of cells. grademiners.eu/ Two membrane strains are formed, After a cell divides. A morphogen, such as transcription factors, is crucial for formation of the membrane. Within this membrane, organelles and genetic info are .

Chiasmata aid from the process of protein synthesis, also in some specific membranes they’re responsible for controlling the speed of the protein intake practice. There are 3 layers at the cell membrane: carbohydrate, and lipid, protein, which comprise acids and fatty acids.

Chiasmata are crucial in cell proliferation. This process takes place every time a form of cell division occurs that involves formation of the membrane in the cellphone. In addition to this also, chiasmata play play a part in establishing brain function.

Chiasmata www.usq.edu.au/study/degrees/bachelor-of-science/physical-sciences are an important part of most living organisms. They are also involved in regulating development, growth, distinction, and memory. Chiasmata are essential in the invention of the nucleus, plus it helps from the multiplication of cell division, and cell division.

Chiasmata are utilized in not just from your brain, and virtually all the parts of the body. Mental performance is quite important and also this polysaccharide is discovered in most aspects of your body. Hence, it has been estimated that chiasmata is found in greater than 50 percent of their body’s cells.


Chiasmata Definition can be really a eukaryotic polysaccharide, also a sugar-like molecule that&rsquos also referred to as a structural unit of tissues, and also also a significant part of the cell membrane

Chiasmata Definition is also an important structural component of all tissues of the body, for the vital part in differentiation and cellular increase.

Membranes will be the layers of cells, grademiners.com review and they are liable for safeguarding cells by invading bacteria and viruses. Membranes assist modulate the distribution of nutrients between outside and the inner of cells. An important use of chiasmata could be the regulation of cell growth.

Chiasmata are perhaps not included with growth regulation but in addition in the distinction of tissues from the cell membrane. The chiasmata are liable for the genetic makeup of an organism. One of the largest structures inside a cell could be that the valve.

Chiasmata are still https://grademiners.eu/ an essential structural component of many sorts of cells. After a cell divides, two strains that were membrane are formed. A morphogen, for example as transcription factors, is crucial for formation of the first membrane. During this second membrane, hereditary info and organelles are located.

Chiasmata help from the procedure for protein synthesis, and in some specific membranes they&rsquore responsible for regulating the speed of their protein conversion approach. You&rsquoll find 3 layers at the cell membrane: vitamin, and lipid, protein, which include essential fatty acids and polyunsaturated fats.

Chiasmata are significant in cell regeneration. This procedure happens when a kind of cell division does occur which involves http://www.ric.edu/physicalsciences/Pages/default.aspx formation of their membrane in the cell. Along with this, chiasmata also play a role in establishing brain role.

Chiasmata are an important part of living organisms. Not only that, they are involved in regulating development, growth, distinction, and memory. Chiasmata are essential in the introduction of this nucleus, plus it can help in the multiplication of cell division, and cell division.

Chiasmata are utilized in just about all parts of the human anatomy, and also maybe not simply in the mind. The brain is quite important and also this polysaccharide are located in nearly all areas of the body. Ergo, it has been projected that chiasmata is found in a lot significantly more than 50% of the cells of their body.


What is Chiasmata? Well, it's a book written by UC Davis Professor Laura Kraus.

Inside the book, she defines Chiasmata because the inner struggle amongst your feelings and your reality.

In other words, Chiasmata is a study of human behavior and specifically what tends to make us human. By means of her experience and encounter, she has discovered what definitely tends to make us human and that is definitely our want to become content.

This wish to be content is often manifested in our minds, but it often comes as a result of becoming depressed. So in studying Chiasmata, Kraus hopes to locate a strategy to assist students overcome their depression.

According to UC Davis Biomedical Sciences professor Michael MacLean, Kraus is a gifted researcher. MacLean's two honors, like author with the book, are what permit him to say this.

His discovery of how students react to hard scenarios is much more than the average individual would do. So far, he has observed more than two hundred different scenarios. He has noted that when he tends to make a mistake, his students come to him and apologize and, surprisingly, the student feels the have to apologize themselves.

Yet, he says this phenomenon cannot be explained. He believes that Chiasmata describes what students want. One student in fact asked him for assist in discovering a close friend. When MacLean got them with each other, the student apologized for not getting close adequate to them.

This can be a good advantage because it permits the student to open up and be extra expressive. Rather than feeling alone, they had been able to attain out to somebody who understands. The key here is communication.UC Davis engineering and biology main Jeff Rabkin is so impressed with Chiasmata. He has even taken a psychology course that focuses on human psychology.

He says a single class he took, such as this, gave him a deeper understanding of Chiasmata and that's what he required. Although he was currently a biology main, he mentioned he learned extra from the class than he ever could from his other classes.

For example, Chiasmata's definition biology describes how feelings influence the body. Rabkin thinks this really is how his professors came up with the term, "The Physique Thoughts Bifurcation."

So although he was in a position to study the mental and emotional aspect of human behavior, he is also studying what takes place when we study the physical sciences. https://essay-company.com He describes himself as a well-rounded student.

He says he never ever even knew that UC Davis biology big Mike's discovery of Chiasmata was so valuable. Now he thinks concerning the book each single day.


References

Alexandru, G., Uhlmann, F., Mechtler, K., Poupart, M.A. & Nasmyth, K. Phosphorylation of the cohesin subunit Scc1 by Polo/Cdc5 kinase regulates sister chromatid separation in yeast. Cell 105, 459–472 (2001).

Sumara, I. et al. The dissociation of cohesin from chromosomes in prophase is regulated by Polo-like kinase. Mol. Cell 9, 515–525 (2002).

Rabitsch, K.P. et al. Kinetochore recruitment of two nucleolar proteins is required for homolog segregation in meiosis I. Dev. Cell 4, 535–548 (2003).

Toth, A. et al. Functional genomics identifies monopolin: a kinetochore protein required for segregation of homologs during meiosis I. Cell 103, 1155–1168 (2000).

Chu, S. et al. The transcriptional program of sporulation in budding yeast. Science 282, 699–705 (1998).

Hepworth, S.R., Friesen, H. & Segall, J. NDT80 and the meiotic recombination checkpoint regulate expression of middle sporulation-specific genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 5750–5761 (1998).

Klein, F. et al. A central role for cohesins in sister chromatid cohesion, formation of axial elements, and recombination during yeast meiosis. Cell 98, 91–103 (1999).

Salah, S.M. & Nasmyth, K. Destruction of the securin Pds1p occurs at the onset of anaphase during both meiotic divisions in yeast. Chromosoma 109, 27–34 (2000).

Sym, M., Engebrecht, J.A. & Roeder, G.S. ZIP1 is a synaptonemal complex protein required for meiotic chromosome synapsis. Cell 72, 365–378 (1993).

Buonomo, S.B. et al. Disjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I depends on proteolytic cleavage of the meiotic cohesin Rec8 by separin. Cell 103, 387–398 (2000).

Uhlmann, F., Wernic, D., Poupart, M.A., Koonin, E.V. & Nasmyth, K. Cleavage of cohesin by the CD clan protease separin triggers anaphase in yeast. Cell 103, 375–386 (2000).

Tanaka, T., Fuchs, J., Loidl, J. & Nasmyth, K. Cohesin ensures bipolar attachment of microtubules to sister centromeres and resists their precocious separation. Nat. Cell Biol. 2, 492–499 (2000).

Aris J.P. & Blobel, G. Identification and characterization of a yeast nucleolar protein that is similar to a rat liver nucleolar protein. J. Cell Biol. 107, 17–31 (1988).

Hunter, N. & Kleckner, N. The single-end invasion: an asymmetric intermediate at the double-strand break to double-Holliday junction transition of meiotic recombination. Cell 106, 59–70 (2001).

Allers, T. & Lichten, M. Intermediates of yeast meiotic recombination contain heteroduplex DNA. Mol. Cell 8, 225–231 (2001).

Keeney, S., Giroux, C.N. & Kleckner, N. Meiosis-specific DNA double-strand breaks are catalyzed by Spo11, a member of a widely conserved protein family. Cell 88, 375–384 (1997)

Cao, L., Alani, E. & Kleckner, N. A pathway for generation and processing of double-strand breaks during meiotic recombination in S. cerevisiae. Cell 61, 1089–1101 (1990).

Allers, T. & Lichten, M. Differential timing and control of noncrossover and crossover formation during meiosis. Cell 106, 47–57 (2001).

Shirayama, M., Zachariae, W., Ciosk, R. & Nasmyth, K. The Polo-like kinase Cdc5p and the WD-repeat protein Cdc20p/fizzy are regulators and substrates of the anaphase promoting complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 17, 1336–1349 (1998).

Stegmeier, F., Visintin, R. & Amon, A. Separase, polo kinase, the kinetochore protein Slk19, and Spo12 function in a network that controls Cdc14 localization during early anaphase. Cell 108, 207–220 (2002).

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HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH | Endocrine Regulation of Fish Reproduction

Z. Yaron , B. Levavi-Sivan , in Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology , 2011

Oogenesis

Oogonial Proliferation and Meiosis

Oogonia proliferate mitotically under the stimulation of E2 ( Figure 2 ). Meiotic division commences in a subpopulation of the oogonia that can be visualized by the presence of synaptonemal complexes (a hallmark feature of homologous chromosomal synapses). Another marker of meiosis is Spo11 , a protein involved in the creation of double-stranded breaks in the DNA at early stages of meiotic recombination. Addition of DHP to the medium of cultured ovarian fragments results in increased abundance of synaptonemal complexes and increased expression of Spo11, indicating that DHP acts to induce meiosis in the oogonia of teleost ovary ( Figure 2 ).

Figure 2 . Stages of fish oogenesis and their endocrine regulation.

Oocyte Growth

As the oocyte starts growing during fish puberty, it is still arrested at the prophase of the first meiotic division ( Figure 2 ). At this phase, it sequesters yolk precursors (vitellogenins) and chorionic proteins (choriogenins) mainly produced by the liver under estrogenic stimulation. The yolk accumulates in the oocyte which increases in diameter. FSH regulates both the secretion of estradiol and the incorporation of vitellogenins into the oocytes ( Figure 1 (a)).

Mutual Regulation of the Follicle Cells and the Oocyte

The granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte and the oocyte itself maintain a mutual communication system by which molecules of the epithelial growth factor (EGF) family secreted by the oocyte affect the adjacent granulosa cells. Activin, a major mediator of fish pituitary gonadotropins, is released by the somatic cells of the follicle and affects the oocyte through activin receptors present in this germ cell.

Oocyte Maturation

The post-vitellogenic oocyte may remain quiescent for several months but following environmental, social, or pheromonal cues, it begins the process of final maturation, that is, the resumption of meiosis ( Figure 2 ). This will commence with a surge in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), with or without a decrease in dopaminergic inhibition, followed by a rise in circulating LH. Upon binding of LH to its receptors on the granulosa cells, the ovarian follicle starts the process of maturation, beginning with the production of the maturation-inducing steroid (maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) such as DHP or 17α-20β,21 Trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20β-S)). Binding of the MIS to its receptors on the oocyte plasma membrane is followed by activation of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF), a complex consisting of existing cdc2-kinase and newly synthesized cyclin B. ( Figure 1 (b)). The process of oocyte maturation is reflected morphologically by the migration of the germinal vesicle (GV) toward the animal pole (GV migration) and the disintegration of its membrane, a stage known as GV breakdown (GVBD) ( Figures 1(b) and 2 ). The chromosomes then condense, a spindle is formed, and the first polar body is extruded which marks the end of the first meiotic division ( Figure 2 ). At this stage the oocytes absorb water and inflate this is especially pronounced in marine fish with pelagic eggs, the pressure within the follicle increases, the follicular wall is ruptured, and the oocyte is released (ovulated) into the ovarian lumen or to the coelomic cavity. The meiosis is arrested again at metaphase II. Completion of the second meiotic division and extrusion of the second polar body are further delayed and will proceed only if the egg is fertilized ( Figure 2 ).


Footnotes

† These authors contributed equally to this work.

Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.5287729.

References

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